ISO 27001 - Annex A.12: Operations Security
A crucial component of aligning your organization with the ISO 27001 standard is operations security. The management of the information processing facilities in your organization is governed by Annex A.12. It establishes the foundation for a comprehensive infosec strategy along with the other Annex A controls.
What is Annex A.12?
Annex A.12 of the ISO 27001 standard provides guidance on how to select and implement security controls. The standard is generic and intended to be used by organizations of all sizes and types.
The security controls in Annex A.12 are organized into four categories:
- Physical and environmental security,
- Personnel security,
- Communications and operations security, and
- Information security
Annex A.12 of the ISO/IEC 27001 standard is about the management of security risks. The standard defines security risks as "the potential for unauthorized access to, or loss or damage to, information assets." The standard goes on to state that security risks can come from a wide variety of sources, including natural disasters, human error, malicious software, and malicious attacks.
The annex provides guidance on how to identify, assess, and manage security risks. It also includes a list of security controls that can be used to mitigate risks. The annex is intended for use by organizations that have a need to manage security risks.
What is Operations Security?
Operations security, also known as Opsec, is the process of protecting your organization's critical information and assets from being compromised by outsiders. It's a proactive approach to security that focuses on identifying and mitigating risks before they can be exploited.
Opsec is an important part of any security program, and it's especially critical for businesses that deal with sensitive data or operate in high-risk industries. If your organization is subject to ISO 27001, then you need to have an operations security program in place.
Why is Operations Security important for your Organisation?
Operations security, also known as OpSec, is the process of identifying, controlling, and protecting information that could be used by adversaries to harm an organization or individual. It is a critical component of any security program and is necessary for the safe and effective operations of any organization.
There are many benefits to implementing an operations security program, including the following:
- Improving security posture
- reducing the likelihood of an adversary successfully carrying out an attack
- Protection of information and assets
- Continuity of operations
- Enhancements to organizational reputation
If you are looking to improve the security of your organization, ISO 27001 is a great place to start. ISO 27001 is an international standard that provides best practices for an information security management system (ISMS). Implementing an ISMS can help you to effectively manage your operations security program and improve your overall security posture.
What are the Annex A.12 controls?
A set of 14 controls covering seven important components of operations security can be found in Annex A.12. Let's examine these controls' contributions to sound OPSEC procedures in this part, along with some implementation strategies.
A12.1 Operational procedures and responsibilities :
A12.1 Operational procedures and responsibilities (ISO 27001) is a standard that outlines the procedures and responsibilities for organizational staff in order to ensure the security of information assets. The procedures and responsibilities detailed in this standard are essential for the successful implementation of an ISO 27001 compliant Information Security Management System (ISMS).
Organizations that adopt ISO 27001 will be able to protect their information assets from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, or destruction. In addition, they will be able to establish a framework for continuously improving their ISMS.
This standard applies to all organizations, regardless of size, type, or industry.
A.12.1.1 - Documented operating procedures:
A.12.1.1 - Documented operating procedures is a requirement of ISO 27001. The standard states that organizations must have documented procedures for all operations that could have an effect on the security of the organization's information. This includes procedures for handling and storage of information, as well as for communication and networking.
Organizations should ensure that their documented procedures are up to date and reflect the current state of their operations. They should also ensure that all personnel are aware of the procedures and are trained in their use.
non-compliance with this requirement can lead to information security incidents. Therefore, organizations need to take the necessary steps to ensure compliance.
A.12.1.1 - Documented operating procedures (iso 27001) is a security standard that establishes requirements for the documentation of operating procedures. The standard is designed to help organizations ensure that their operating procedures are documented and up to date.
The benefits of documented operating procedures include:
- Improving communication within the organization
- Ensuring that all staff members are aware of their responsibilities.
- Making it easier to train new staff members.
- Making it easier to make changes to procedures.
A.12.1.2 - Change management
In order to maintain the security of your IT systems, it is important to have a process in place for managing changes to those systems. This process, known as change management, ensures that changes are made in a controlled and monitored manner, with the potential risks being assessed and mitigated before the changes are implemented.
Change management is a critical component of any effective security management system. It is especially important in the context of ISO 27001, the international standard for information security management.
To comply with the standard, organizations must develop and maintain documented operating procedures for their security management system. These procedures must be reviewed and updated on a regular basis.
When implementing any kind of change in an organization, security must be taken into consideration to maintain the effectiveness of the security management system (SMS). According to ISO/IEC 27001:2013, Annex A.12.1.2, “change management” is defined as the “process responsible for requesting, controlling and implementing changes to the IS MS”.
In order to implement changes effectively, Annex A.12.1.2 – Change management procedure must be followed. This procedure contains 4 steps:
- Request for change
- Evaluation of change
- Approval of change
- Implementation of change
Each of these steps is important in ensuring that changes are made in a controlled and safe manner.
Annex A.12.1.3 Capacity management
Annex A.12.1.3 of ISO/IEC 27001:2013 deals with capacity management. The objective of this requirement is to ensure that the information system has the capacity to store, process, and access the required data and information within pre-determined performance targets.
- The requirements specified in Annex A.12.1.3 are as follows:
- The organization shall determine the capacity requirements of the information system.
- The organization shall determine the performance targets for the information system.
- The organization shall ensure that the information system has the capacity to meet the performance targets.
- The organization shall monitor the actual performance of the information system against the performance targets.
- The organization shall take corrective and preventive action to address any deviations from the performance targets.
Annex A.12.1.3 of ISO/IEC 27001 requires an organization to have a formal capacity management process to ensure that the system can meet required service levels. This process should consider planning, development, testing, and deployment of new or changed system components.
Additionally, the process should identify and document capacity requirements, and establish capacity thresholds. When capacity utilization reaches the established thresholds, the process should trigger the addition of capacity.
Annex A.12.1.3 of ISO 27001 states the requirements for capacity management. It includes requirements for assessing future capacity needs and ensuring that those needs are met in a timely and cost-effective manner.
The objective of this Annex is to ensure that the information security risks associated with IT resources are identified and addressed in a systematic and proactive manner.
Annex A.12.1.3 capacity management is a process that should be performed on a regular basis in order to ensure that the organization has the necessary IT resources to meet its current and future business needs.
Annex A.12.1.4 - Separation of development, testing & operational Environments
Organizations that develop software in-house shall establish and maintain development, test and operational environments that are separate from each other. The rationale for this separation is to prevent uncontrolled changes to the software in operational environments. This separation also allows different levels of access to software assets, as well as different rates of change, to be managed.
The requirements for separation of development, test and operational environments are specified in Annex A.12.1.4. of ISO/IEC 27001:2013. This separation is to be implemented at all levels within the organization's software development process, including but not limited to:
- Requirement gathering
- Functional specifications
- Detailed design
- Unit testing
- Integration testing
- System testing
- User acceptance testing
- Implementation in an operational environment
Annex A.12.1.4 - Separation of development, testing & operational Environments (SO 27001) is a security standard that sets out the requirements for how development, testing and operational environments should be kept separate. The standard is designed to prevent information leakage and accidental or unauthorized changes to systems.
There are two types of environmental separation:
- Physical separation: This is when the development, testing and operational environment are on different physical systems.
- Logical separation: This is when the environments are on the same physical system but are logically isolated from each other.
The standard requires that the level of separation between environments must be appropriate to the risk. For example, if the development environment is used to test code that will be deployed in the operational environment, then the level of separation between the two environments must be high.
The standard also requires that security controls must be in place to prevent unauthorized access to, or changes to, the development, testing and operational environment.
Annex A.12.2 - Protection from malware
Annex A.12.2 - Protection from malware (iso 27001) provides guidance on the selection, implementation, and maintenance of security controls to protect against the risks posed by malware.
Organizations should consider the full range of risks posed by malware when developing their IT security strategy. These risks include, but are not limited to, the following:
- The unauthorized access to, or loss of, information
- The unauthorized alteration of information
- The Denial of service
- The disruption to, or premature termination of, business processes or services
To protect themselves from these risks, organizations should implement security controls that are appropriate to the level of risk. This includes, but is not limited to, the following:
- The use of firewalls, intrusion detection/prevention systems, and antivirus software
- The implementation of secure coding practices
- The education and awareness of employees on the risks posed by malware and the importance of security.
Annex A.12.2 of the ISO/IEC 27001 standard states that organizations must take measures to protect their information assets from malware. This includes ensuring that systems are protected from known and unknown malware, as well as providing adequate detection and response capabilities.
Organizations should have a clear understanding of the types of malware that pose a threat to their systems, as well as the potential impact of an infection. They should also have procedures in place for dealing with malware incidents, including incident response and business continuity plans.
A.12.2.1 - Controls against malware
A.12.2.1 - Controls against malware The purpose of A.12.2.1 is to ensure that organizational information systems are protected against malware. Malware is any software that is designed to damage or disable computers and computer systems.
There are many different types of malwares, including viruses, worms, Trojans, adware, and spyware. A.12.2.1 establishes the specific controls that organizations must put in place to protect themselves against malware.
Some of these controls include identifying and classifying types of malwares, implementing malware detection and prevention systems, and establishing an incident response plan. By implementing these controls, organizations can reduce the risk of malware infections and the consequent damage to their information systems.
The aim of A.12.2.1 is to protect information assets from malware. This includes, but is not limited to, computer viruses, worms, Trojans, and other malicious code or software.
To achieve this, A.12.2.1 includes the following control measures:
- The use of firewalls and other security devices to protect information assets from malware
- The use of anti-malware software, and the regular updating of this software
- Restrictions on the use of certain email attachments and file types
- The use of email filtering to block emails with known malware
- The use of application whitelisting to prevent the execution of unauthorized software
- The implementation of user education and awareness programmes on the risks of malware
A.12.2.1 - Controls against malware (iso 27001) is a standard that was published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in October 2016.
The standard specifies the requirements for an information security management system (ISMS) that can be used to protect against, detect and respond to malware attacks.
The standard is applicable to all organizations, regardless of size or type.
The standard is part of the ISO/IEC 27000 family of standards and is based on the ISO/IEC 27002 standard.
Implementing an A.12.2.1 - Controls against malware (iso 27001) standard can help organizations protect themselves against malware attacks and can also be used to improve their overall security posture.
Annex A.12.3 – backup
Organizations that are required to comply with Annex A.12.3 of the ISO/IEC 27001 standard must establish, document, implement, and maintain a procedure for periodically backing up information required to be available for reconstruction after a physical or logical incident.
The frequency and media used for backup copies are dependent on the organization’s risk assessment and business continuity requirements.
Annex A.12.3.1 - Information backup
The purpose of Annex A.12.3.1 is to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the information stored on backup media from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or deletion. The controls in Annex A.12.3.1 are also intended to protect the backup media from damage or loss.
Organizations should consider the following when implementing the controls in Annex A.12.3:
The types of backup media to be used (e.g., tape, disk, etc.);
- The frequency of backups (e.g., daily, weekly, etc.).
- The duration of backups (e.g., 28 days, 6 months, etc.).
- The media rotation schedule.
- The procedures for storing, transporting, and handling backup media.
- The procedures for verifying the integrity of backup media.
- The procedures for destroying or dispositioning of expired or unused backup media.
- The responsibilities of individuals who have access to backup media.
Data backup and recovery is a key components of any business continuity plan. It is important to have a robust and tested backup and recovery plan in place to ensure that your organization can recover from any type of disaster, whether it is natural or man-made.
Annex A.12.3.1 of the ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standard provides guidance on developing an effective and comprehensive backup and recovery plan.
Annex A.12.3.1 of the ISO/IEC 27001 standard deals with the requirements for information backup. The Annex contains four sub-clauses:
- 12.3.1 General
- 12.3.2 Backup procedures
- 12.3.3 Backup media
- 12.3.4 Backup disposal
Annex A.12.3 - Information backup (iso 27001) is an important part of the ISO/IEC 27001 standard and helps organizations to ensure that their information backups are carried out in a secure and controlled manner.
Annex A.12.4 - Logging and Monitoring
Annex A.12.4 of ISO 27001 requires that organizations take appropriate measures to log and monitor information and communication systems. This is to ensure the availability of information and the timely detection of unauthorized system access, use, or interference.
Organizations need to have a clear understanding of their business objectives and the risks associated with their information and communication systems in order to design an effective logging and monitoring system.
Annex A.12.4 of ISO/IEC 27001:2013 provides guidance on logging and monitoring
security-related events within an organization's information security management system (ISMS). The purpose of this annex is to help organizations select appropriate security-related events to log and monitor, and to establish appropriate procedures for doing so.
Organizations are encouraged to consider the following when determining which security-related events to log and monitor:
- The potential impact of the event on the organization's information assets,
- The likelihood of the event occurring, and
- The usefulness of the information that would be generated by logging and monitoring the event.
In order to effectively log and monitor security-related events, organizations should establish appropriate procedures, which should at a minimum include the following:
- Determining which security-related events to log and monitor,
- Identifying the sources of information for logging and monitoring,
- Establishing procedures for logging and monitoring security-related events, and
- Analyzing and responding to security-related events.
Annex A.12.4.1 - Event logging
Annex A.12.4.1 of ISO/IEC 27001:2013 requires the organization to establish and maintain an event log. The purpose of the event log is to enable the organization to take appropriate corrective and preventive action with respect to information security events and weaknesses.
It is important to note that Annex A.12.4.1 only requires the organization to establish and maintain an event log. It does not prescribe the format of the event log or the method by which it is to be maintained.
The event log should be easily accessible to those who need it and should be protected from unauthorized modification. It should be reviewed and updated on a regular basis.
Event logs are records of significant activities that have taken place within a system. They are typically used for security purposes, auditing, and performance. Event logs can be a valuable source of information when it comes to troubleshooting and investigating issues.
Event logging is a important security measure as it can provide evidence of malicious or unauthorized activity. It is also useful for performance monitoring and auditing. When properly configured, event logging can be a valuable tool for ISO 27001 compliance.
Annex A.12.4.1 of ISO/IEC 27001:2013 specifies the requirements for event logging in order to support the organization's security incident management capability. Organizations shall log events that could compromise security, including attempted and successful access to or use of information and information systems.
Organizations shall establish and maintain procedures to log security events in a manner that captures the relevant information, supports the organization's incident response capability, and protects the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the logs.
Event logs shall be reviewed and analyzed on a regular basis, and appropriate security measures shall be taken in response to identified trends and patterns.
Organizations shall establish and maintain procedures to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of event logs, including the protection of logs from unauthorized access, modification, and deletion.
Annex A.12.4.2 - Protection of log information
Annex A.12.4.2 - Protection of log information(iso 27001) is a standard that provides guidance on how to protect log information. The standard covers the requirements for log information management, including the types of log information that need to be collected, how to collect it, and how to store it.
The standard also covers the security controls that need to be put in place to protect log information. This includes access control, activity monitoring, and auditing. The annex contains detailed guidance on how to implement these security controls.
Organizations need to collect and analyze log information to improve security and business processes. However, this information must be properly protected to prevent unauthorized access, disclosure, or destruction.
Annex A.12.4.2 of the ISO/IEC 27001 standard provides guidance on how to protect log information. This guidance is aligned with ISO/IEC 27002, which is the code of practice for information security management.
The objective of this annex is to ensure that log information is protected from unauthorized access, disclosure, or destruction. To achieve this, organizations must implement controls to limit access to log information, ensure the confidentiality and integrity of this information, and ensure its availability in the event of a disaster.
Annex A.12.4.3 - Administrator and operator software
Annex A.12.4.3 of ISO 27001 requires the organization to establish and maintain secure administrator and operator software. The software used by administrators and operators should be protected from unauthorized access and use. This can be achieved by using a combination of physical and logical security controls.
The purpose of this Annex is to provide guidance on the security requirements for administrator and operator software. It is not intended to be a comprehensive guide to all aspects of software security.
Annex A.12.4.3 of the ISO/IEC 27001 Standard specifies the requirements for administrator and operator software. The Annex A.12.4.3 controls are designed to protect system administrators and operators from malware and other threats while they are performing their duties.
The Annex A.12.4.3 requirements apply to all system administrator and operator software, including but not limited to:
- Anti-malware software
- Intrusion detection and prevention systems
- Virtual private networks
- Password managers
The goal of the Annex A.12.4.3 controls is to prevent administrators and operators from unintentionally introducing malware or other threats into the system.
This annex contains the following requirements:
- 18.104.22.168 Administrator and operator software must be authorized and controlled
- 22.214.171.124 Administrator and operator software must be kept up to date
- 126.96.36.199 Administrator and operator software must be properly configured
- 188.8.131.52 Administrator and operator software must be used in accordance with agreed procedures
Annex A.12.4.4 - Clock synchronisation
Annex A.12.4.4 of ISO/IEC 27001:2013 covers the requirements for clock synchronisation. It is a security control that is often overlooked but is important for the correct functioning of security controls that rely on time stamps.
The requirements of Annex A.12.4.4 are as follows:
- It must be possible to synchronizes the clocks of all systems and devices that are part of the IS.
- Clocks must be synchronized with an accuracy of at least +/-1 second.
- Clocks must be synchronized with a time source that is known to be accurate.
- There must be a mechanism in place to ensure that clocks are synchronized on a regular basis.
- There must be a mechanism in place to ensure that the clocks of systems and devices that are part of the IS are synchronised if they are not connected to the time source.
Annex A.12.4.4 - Clock synchronisation(iso 27001) is a security standard that deals with the issue of clock synchronisation. It is a requirement of the ISO/IEC 27001 standard. The annex requires that all systems have their clocks synchronized with a reference time source. This is to ensure that all events can be accurately logged and audited.
There are a number of methods that can be used to synchronize clocks, such as Network Time Protocol (NTP), Precision Time Protocol (PTP), or Global Positioning System (GPS). Each of these methods has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Annex A.12.5 - Control of operational software
Annex A.12.5 of ISO 27001 is titled ‘Control of operational software’. It contains 14 sub-controls which are designed to help organizations ensure that the operational software they use is fit for purpose, meets the needs of the business, and is kept up-to-date.
Operational software is defined in Annex A.12.1 as ‘the set of software products that are used to perform the operational processes of the organization’. This includes, but is not limited to, the following:
- Application software
- System software
- mobile apps
- web apps
Annex A.12.5 of ISO/IEC 27001:2013 specifies the security requirements for the control of operational software. The objective of this control is to prevent, detect and mitigate the unauthorized type, creation, storage, use, or modification of operational software.
In order to achieve this objective, the following security controls are specified:
- 12.5.1 Operational software security policy
- 12.5.2 Operational software inventory
- 12.5.3 Security of new and changed operational software
- 12.5.4 Software development security
- 12.5.5 Software usage control
- 12.5.6 Malicious software
- 12.5.7 Security of operational software backups
Annex A.12.5.1 - Installation of software on operational Systems
Annex A.12.5.1 - Installation of software on operational systems is a requirement of ISO 27001. This Annex describes the high-level process for installing software on operational systems, including the assessment of risks, the development of installation procedures, and the testing of those procedures.
Annex A.12.5.1 of ISO/IEC 27001:2013 is concerned with the procedures for the installation of software on operational systems. The objective of this annex is to ensure that newly installed software does not adversely affect the security of the operational system.
In order to achieve this, the following measures should be taken:
- A security impact analysis should be conducted prior to the installation of software.
- The software should be installed in accordance with the vendor’s instructions.
- The software should be reviewed for known security vulnerabilities.
- The software should be tested prior to installation.
- The software should be installed in accordance with the security policy of the organization.
This Annex provides guidance on the security requirements for the software installation process. The intent is to control the installation of authorized software on operational systems in a manner that will not adversely affect system security. This control is necessary to prevent the installation of software that would introduce malicious code or otherwise degrade system security.
In order to be effective, the control must be included in the system development process and enforced throughout the life-cycle of the system.
The guidance in this Annex applies to the installation of new software and the upgrade of existing software. This includes, but is not limited to, system software, application software, firmware, and driver software.
Annex A.12.6 - Technical vulnerability management
In order to implement Annex A.12.6 - Technical vulnerability management of ISO/IEC 27001:2013, an organization needs to consider various factors such as the types of assets, the threats and vulnerabilities associated with those assets, and the organization’s ability to detect, react, and recover from incidents.
A.12.6.1 Asset identification
The first step in Annex A.12.6 - Technical vulnerability management is to identify the organization’s assets. Assets can be categorized into three types:
- Physical assets: These are the tangible assets that the organization uses to carry out its operations, such as buildings, machinery, and equipment.
- Informational assets: These are the intangible assets that the organization uses to carry out its operations, such as data, software, and intellectual property.
- Organizational assets: These are the assets that enable the organization to function, such as its people, processes, and reputation.
Annex A.12.6 of the ISO/IEC 27001 standard specifies the requirements for technical vulnerability management. This includes the assessment of risks posed by technical vulnerabilities, the development of mitigations, and the implementation of these mitigations.
The goal of Annex A.12.6 is to ensure that technical vulnerabilities are managed in a way that minimizes the risks to the organization. This Annex provides guidance on how to select, implement, and monitor controls to mitigate the risks posed by technical vulnerabilities.
Annex A.12.6.1 - Management of technical vulnerabilities
This Annex provides guidance on the management of technical vulnerabilities as part of an ISMS.
One of the main objectives of Annex A.12.6.1 is to ensure that technical vulnerabilities are managed in a controlled and timely manner. This will help to protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information.
Annex A.12.6.1 provides guidance on the following topics:
- Identifying technical vulnerabilities
- Assessment of technical vulnerabilities
- Management of technical vulnerabilities
- Mitigation of technical vulnerabilities
- Monitoring and review of technical vulnerabilities
Annex A.12.6.1 of the ISO 27001 standard sets out the requirements for the management of technical vulnerabilities. This includes the identification, assessment, and mitigation of technical vulnerabilities.
The standard requires that organizations have a process in place for the identification, assessment, and mitigation of technical vulnerabilities. This process should be documented and reviewed on a regular basis.
Organizations should also have a procedure for the reporting of technical vulnerabilities to the relevant authorities. This procedure should be reviewed on a regular basis.
Annex A.12.6.2 - Restrictions on software installations
Annex A.12.6.2 - Restrictions on software installations (ISO 27001) is a security control that specifies the permissions and procedures required for installing software on systems. The control is intended to prevent unauthorized or malicious software from being installed on systems, as well as to ensure that software is properly configured and tested before it is installed.
The control is applicable to all system types, including desktop, laptop, server, and virtual systems. It is also applicable to software that is installed using any method, including direct installation, network installation, and software-as-a-service (SaaS).
The purpose of this annex is to provide guidance on implementing Annex A.12.6.2 of ISO 27001. This annex covers the following topics:
- Installing software from trusted sources only.
- Installing software using administrator privileges.
- Verifying digital signatures of software.
- Scanning software for malware before installation.
- Restricting installation of unapproved software.
- Treating software installation as a change.
- Logs of software installations.
Annex A.12.6.2 of ISO 27001 requires organizations to restrict the installation of software to authorized individuals only. This is done in order to prevent unauthorized software from being installed on company computers, which could lead to organizational data being compromised.
In order to meet this requirement, organizations must have a process in place for approving and installing software. This process should include the following steps:
- Requesting software: All software requests must be submitted to the IT department for approval.
- Approving software: The IT department will review the software request and determine whether or not it should be approved.
- Installing software: Once the software has been approved, it will be installed on the company computers by the IT department.
- Restricting access: Only authorized individuals will be given access to the installed software.
By following these steps, organizations can ensure that only authorized software is installed on their computers, and that their data remains safe and secure.
Annex A.12.7 - Information Systems and audit considerations
Annex A.12.7 of ISO 27001 spells out the specific requirements for an organization’s information security management system (ISMS) when it comes to audit considerations. This includes the requirements for an ISMS Audit Program as well as the responsibilities of the ISMS Auditor.
The specific requirements for the ISMS Audit Program are as follows:
The scope of the audit program must cover all aspects of the ISMS, including the development, implementation, and maintenance of the ISMS.
- The audit program must be conducted at least once a year.
- A qualified auditor must conduct the audit program.
- The audit program must include a review of the ISMS documentation.
- The audit program must include a review of the ISMS implementation.
- The audit program must include a review of the ISMS management.
- The audit program must include a review of the ISMS performance.
The ISMS Auditor must:
- Be independent of the ISMS.
- Have the necessary expertise and experience.
- Be able to communicate effectively.
12.7.1 Information systems audit controls
Information systems audit controls are a set of policies and procedures that help organizations protect their data and ensure compliance with laws and regulations. Information systems audit controls help organizations manage risk, improve operational efficiency, and make better decisions.
There are three types of information systems audit controls:
Organizational controls: These controls establish the framework for how the organization will manage its information systems.
Technical controls: These controls protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the information system.
Physical controls: These controls protect the physical assets of the organization, such as the computers, networks, and data centres.
Organizations face many challenges when it comes to ensuring the security of their information systems. One of the most important challenges is to ensure that their audit controls are effective.
The A 12.7.1 standard for information systems audit controls (ISO 27001) is a set of requirements that organizations can use to ensure that their audit controls are effective. This standard is based on the ISO 27002 standard for security controls.
The A 12.7.1 standard contains a number of requirements, including:
- A description of the organization’s information security program
- A description of the organization’s information security architecture
- A description of the organization’s security controls.
- A description of the organization’s security monitoring and reporting procedures
- A description of the organization’s security incident management procedures
- A description of the organization’s security audits.
Despite the fact that organisations are not obligated to implement all 114 Annex A measures, it is crucial to pick and execute the controls that most closely fit your organization's requirements and objectives.
Best practises for operations security are outlined in Annex A.12 through 14 possible controls that make sure sensitive data is not lost, stolen, or damaged. Information security processes were strengthened and information was protected from external threats by the risk-management based ISO 27001 framework, which is covered in detail in section A.12.